Interacting with Pagans prompts me on occasion to consider the function and efficacy of ritual. I am not entirely comfortable with Catholics sacramentalism but I’m also seeing limitations with the way Protestants speak of “ordinances” and wonder if we’ve sometimes tossed the baby out with the bathwater. If we see mental assent as sufficient for salvation we’re being awfully dualistic. Shouldn’t we be approaching it more holistically? I am beginning to wonder if preaching the gospel, praising God, breaking bread together, gathering together, and baptising one another should not all be considered “expressions of faith”, and as such, “means of grace”. It’s not that God can’t confer grace through other means, it’s just that it pleases God to frequently act through these means. I am not at all comfortable with the way that the sinner’s prayer and/or altar call seem to have gazumped baptism in many baptist churches. Something is seriously wrong with that picture. When I think of baptism as a kinaesthetic expression of faith it kind of makes more sense for me though. Baptism isn’t a work or the law, it’s an act of gift reception.
May you be blessed
With the spirit of the season, which is peace,
The gladness of the season, which is hope,
And the heart of the season, which is love.
Some creative prayer ideas from Methodist.org.uk:
1/ Rock of salvation
Hold stones or glass beads to symbolise a hard problem; place it near a cross.
2/ Light of the World
Scented tea lights placed in front of a newspaper (to pray for those in the news)
3/ Fruit of the Spirit
Drink fruit juices which have been re-labelled joy, peace, love or patience, and as you drink ask God for that gift of the Spirit
A study of the Biblical bases of prayer.
©1999 by James A. Fowler. All rights reserved.
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Christian people have long struggled to understand prayer and to participate in prayer in a meaningful way. Many have viewed prayer as if it were
“some poor earth denizens reaching up to some distant Father in some remote heaven, very uncertain about the answers they will get, taking many a shot in the dark, not even always sure that their prayers reach above the ceiling.”1
Much of the misunderstanding of prayer stems from legalistic, mystical and superstitious misconceptions fostered by religion. There is a dire need among Christians to establish a Christocentric theology of prayer that will serve as a foundation for practical participation therein.
The objective of this study is to briefly and concisely articulate a Biblical and Christocentric understanding of prayer that will then serve to provide the denial of the religious concepts of prayer that are so prevalent. In order to do so we must commence with a theology that is Christ-centered or Christocentric.
Christ: The Basis of Christian Prayer
Christian prayer, as distinguished from general and religious concepts of prayer, is necessarily predicated upon and connected to the life and work of Jesus Christ. Apart from Christ’s historical work and the continuing function of the risen Lord Jesus there is no such reality as Christian prayer.
Jesus Christ lived the perfect life as God intended for man here on earth by deriving all that He did from God the Father. “I do nothing of My own initiative” (John 5:30; 8:28; 12:49; 14:10), Jesus said, “but the Father abiding in Me does His works” (John 14:10). Jesus lived the life of the Perfect Man2 for every moment in time for thirty-three years by constantly living in the prayer of faith. He chose to be receptive to the activity of God the Father in all that He did and said. Karl Barth explains,
“He became the first One properly to take and receive the divine gift. He takes up towards God the position of One who has nothing, who has to receive everything from God. He trusts in God that He will in fact receive it from Him. He entrusts everything to Him. This is how He lives…a life controlled and upheld by the grace of God. In all His life as a man Jesus was only and altogether a Suppliant. As the Son of God He is Himself altogether the divine gift and answer. God triumphed in this man. He did it because this man actually asked, and asking took and received; because this man sought, and seeking found; because this man knocked, and as He knocked, it was opened to Him. In this way God triumphed in the asking. This man prayed. He prayed to God for His unspeakable gift.”3
Living in faith and praying in faith Jesus expressed the character of God in all that He did. In so doing He was “obedient unto death” (Phil. 2:8) on behalf of all mankind. His perfect life of faithful prayer was not for the purpose of providing a matchless example, but that He might become the spotless sacrifice, vicariously taking the death consequences of men’s sin in order that He might provide mankind with His limitless life.
By His redemptive payment He became “a merciful and faithful high priest…to make propitiation for the sins of the people” (Heb. 2:17). He was the High Priest who offered the ultimate offering for all sin in the sinless sacrifice of Himself, and has now “taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens” (Heb. 8:1). He is “the one mediator between God and man…who gave Himself as a ransom for all” (I Tim. 2:5,6). On the basis of His High Priestly mediation, Christians who receive Him and His work by faith are “reconciled to God through the death of His Son” (Rom. 5:10; II Cor. 5:18). Such a reconciled relationship between God and man allows the Christian to approach God directly and immediately in prayer. “We have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus” (Heb. 10:19), “drawing near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith” (Heb. 10:22). In the most intimate of personal relationships, we can address God “as sons, by which we cry out ‘Abba! Father!'” (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).
The redemptive payment not only allowed for a reconciled personal relationship with God through Christ, but served as the basis for the restorational provision of God’s life restored to man, so that man could function as God intended. Jesus came not only “to give His life a ransom for many” (Matt. 20:28), but “that we might have life, and have it more abundantly” (John 10:10). That life is His life, for He said, “I am the way, the truth and the life” (John 14:6). The Christian life is the life of Jesus Christ; “Christ is our life” (Col. 3:4). The living Lord Jesus is to be the basis of all that we are and all that we do as Christians. He has “granted us everything pertaining to life and godliness” (II Peter 1:3). “All things belong to us” (I Cor. 3:20,21) in Jesus Christ. “Every spiritual blessing in heavenly places” is ours “in Christ” (Eph. 1:3); the “summing up of all things in Christ” (Eph. 1:10). All that Christians do in their Christian lives is to be the functional expression of the indwelling Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus prompts and empowers our Christian behavior and Christian ministry; our worship, our intercession and our prayer.
Christ: The Pray-er of Christian Prayer
The Christian life is not what we do, but what He does in and through us. Everything in the Christian life is Jesus Christ in action as we derive all that we are and all that we do from God in Christ by His Spirit. Since Christian prayer is an essential part of Christian life, it must be concluded that the living Lord Jesus is functioning in our prayers. Norman Grubb indicates that “prayer is the product of our union with Christ. He in us is the Pray-er.”4 T.F. Torrance explains,
“Through Christ we have access in one Spirit to the Father because He has sent His own Holy Spirit to dwell in us, the same Spirit by whom He lived and prayed in our nature and through whom He offered Himself without spot to the Father, not for His own sake but for our sake. Thus the presence of His Spirit in us means that Christ’s prayer and worship of the Father are made to echo in us and issue out of our life to the Father as our own prayer and worship. While it is we who pray, we pray not in our own name but in the name of Christ, and yet it is not we but He who prays in us, so that the prayer which we pray in the flesh we pray in the faith of the Son of God who loved us and gave Himself for us (Gal. 2:20).” 5
Somewhat more philosophically and with less Christocentric emphasis, C.S. Lewis writes,
“Our act, when we pray, must not, any more than all our other acts, be separated from the continuous act of God Himself, in which alone all finite causes operate.”6
“He is the ground of our being. He is always both within us and over against us. Our reality is so much from His reality as He, moment by moment, projects into us. The deeper the level within ourselves from which our prayer, or any other act, wells up, the more it is His, but not at all the less ours. Rather, most ours when most His.”7
Only when Christians recognize their spiritual identity in Jesus Christ, that “Christ is their life” (Col. 3:4) and that as “Christ lives in them” (Gal. 2:20) He must of necessity “pray in them,” will they begin to develop an effective Christocentric theology of Christian prayer. Otherwise their orientation to prayer will always have a somewhat deistic separated concept which over-emphasizes the transcendent distance between God and man, failing to recognize the immanence of Christ’s indwelling and the Christian’s spiritual union with the Spirit of Christ.
When Jesus Christ serves as the Pray-er of Christian prayer, we allow Him to express adoration and praise to God the Father through us. We have “been filled with the fruit of righteousness through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God” (Phil. 1:11) “Through Him then, let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that give thanks to His name” (Heb. 13:15).
Since Jesus is “the High Priest of our confession” (Heb. 3:1), He continues to serve as the Confessor who prompts our confession in Christian prayer. As He is one with the Father He agrees and concurs with God to “say the same thing” (homologeo) about our sin and His sufficiency. “Through Him…our lips are confessing to His name” (Heb. 13:15).
Likewise, the Spirit of Christ expresses thanksgiving to God in the prayers of our lives. Christians “thank God through Jesus Christ” (Rom. 1:8; 7:25), recognizing the “good grace” (eucharistia) of God in all that He does.
Christ in the Christian also serves as our Supplicant in prayer. Martha was quite convinced that if Jesus asked for us, God would undoubtedly hear and grant such requests. “I know that whatever You ask of God, God will give You” (John 11:22). Karl Barth was also convinced of such:
“In His Son God has become man, and therefore He has actually taken our side and become our Brother. And in His Son we are actually raised as His brethren to the side of God. Now if the Son asks Him, how can the Father possibly fail to hear Him? How, then, can the Father fail to hear and answer those whom His Son calls His own, who are together with His Son His children, who ask Him in company with His Son, with whom and for whom the Son asks? How can there be even the smallest interval between asking and hearing? As Jesus Christ asks, and we with Him, God has already made Himself the Guarantor that our requests will be heard.”8
Not only as our Supplicant in personal petition, but also in intercession for others Jesus serves as Intercessor in our Christian prayer. “The Spirit helps our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we should, but the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words; and He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because he intercedes for the saints according to the will of God” (Rom. 8:26,27).
The indwelling Lord Jesus Christ who is the basis of our Christian lives is the Pray-er of Christian prayer. Jesus is both the subject and the object of Christian prayer. Christian prayer is not an activity that we initiate by human effort, but is prompted by the One who lives in us as our Life in response to the personal invitations of God to avail ourselves of His grace.
With this Christocentric understanding of prayer in mind we can better understand what Jesus meant when He said, “If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it shall be done for you” (John 15:7). As we remain, reside and settle-in to the reality of Christ being our life, then our supplications will be His supplications through us and certain to be enacted as His will. This also explains other comments in the Upper Room Discourse when Jesus said, “Whatever you ask in My name, that will I do” (John 14:13,14; 15:16), for we are praying in His Person, as the expression of His Being in Christian prayer, and He is certain to act consistent with His character and desires. This is also the best interpretation of “praying in the Holy Spirit” (Eph. 6:18; Jude 20), for the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Christ and in Christian prayer we are praying by means of the Spirit of Christ operative within us. When James refers to praying “according to His will” (James 5:14), we can be assured that the expression of Jesus Christ is always the will of God, and when Jesus Christ functions as Pray-er in our Christian prayers He will prompt only that which is consistent with Who He is.
Christ: The Answer to Christian Prayer
Jesus is not only the subject and the object of Christian prayer, but the answer to such prayer as well. God answers all prayer with the activity of His Son Jesus Christ, who always serves as the expressive agency of God. The answers to our prayers will be but the manner in which God wants to apply the life of Jesus Christ in our particular circumstances.
The complete provision of God for man is in Jesus Christ. God has nothing more to give than what He has given and is giving in Jesus Christ. If God had more to give than Jesus Christ, then Jesus Christ is insufficient. If God could express Himself other than by Jesus Christ, then Jesus “died needlessly” (Gal. 2:21). If God had any answer other than Jesus Christ, then Jesus is superfluous. God forbid that we should think that there is anything to be added to the work of Jesus Christ. This was the basis of the great Reformation plea for sola Christus; Christ only and Christ alone as our “wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption” (I Cor. 1:30). We are “complete in Christ” (Col. 2:10).
“Of all the things that are needed by man, and needed in such a way that he can receive them only from God,…there is one great gift,…there is one great answer. This one divine gift and answer is Jesus Christ.” 9
The gift of God is in Jesus Christ (John 4:10; Rom. 5:15; 6:23; Eph. 2:8;). The love of God is in Jesus Christ (John 3:16; Rom. 5:5; II Tim. 1:13). All the blessings of God are in Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:3). The grace of God is realized through Jesus Christ (John 1:17). The will of God is Jesus Christ. The answer of God to all prayer is Jesus Christ.
When Christians pray for wisdom, as they are instructed to do (James 1:5), they are praying for what they already have in Jesus Christ (I Cor. 1:24,30). When Christians pray for discernment, they pray for what they already have by the Spirit of Christ (I Cor. 12:10; I John 4:1). When Christians pray for patience, gentleness, kindness or love, they are praying for what they already have in the character fruit of the Spirit of Christ (Gal. 5:22,23). When Christians pray personal petitions for perceived needs in their lives, the supply for such is already promised in Jesus Christ (Phil. 4:19).
“What does the Christian not have, what can he possibly lack, when he can have Him? What can disturb or hinder or confuse or devastate him in life as a Christian when he can live with Him, in communion with Him? What need is not already met in Him, what difficulty is not already removed in Him, what help is not already present in Him, what word of comfort that he needs is not already spoken in Him, what direction that he awaits is not already given in Him? In Him, the Christian has already attained, he is already at the goal, and he can look back and down upon all his distress as already alleviated. 10
(but the) Christian has not yet realized in what fullness the divine gift and answer is already present and near to hand, and with what joy he can avail himself of it, and in what thankfulness he can acknowledge the fact.”11
Using the familiar acrostic of A.C.T.S. representing prayer as
we can further explain how Christ is the answer of all Christian prayer.
In our prayers of adoration and praise we recognize and affirm, “I am not righteous, good and holy; only You are righteous, good, holy, perfect, pure, etc. We express our appreciation of God’s nature and character, and the activity that derives out of that character in Jesus Christ. Both verbally and behaviorally we are concerned about expressing the “worth-ship” of God’s Being, Person, character and Name in the worship of Christian prayer, as Christ functions through us.
Our prayers of confession recognize that “I can’t be or do what I am designed to be or do; only You can manifest Your character in me. I can’t glorify You God for I am inadequate, insufficient and sinful; only You can cause me to be what You designed me to be, allowing Jesus Christ to be my sufficiency (II Cor. 3:5) in order to manifest Your character unto Your glory.” Thus we “say the same thing” (homologeo) as God about our sinfulness (I John 1:9), and about our identity and sufficiency in Jesus Christ.
Prayers of thanksgiving are those in which we recognize that “I do not take credit for what has taken place; it is only what You have done by Your “good grace” (eucharistia) in Jesus Christ. I have not worked or performed meritoriously; only You have done and are doing what is of any value in my life, for Jesus said, ‘Apart from Me, you can do nothing.'” (John 15:5). Therefore we seek to “give thanks for all things” (Eph. 5:20) and “in everything” (I Thess. 5:18).
Christian prayers of supplication take the form of both personal petitions and intercession for others. In these prayers we are saying, “I seek, ask and request about these particular needs and wants, both for myself and for others; You have “supplied all of our needs…in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 4:19).” We “draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need” (Heb. 4:16), recognizing that such mercy and grace are realized in Jesus Christ (John 1:17).
In all of the forms of prayer the Christian recognizes that Christ is the answer to all Christian prayer. We see our inadequacy and His sufficiency. We recognize and affirm that our only response can be the prayer of faith that responds to God’s grace in Jesus Christ.
A doration “I am not…; only You are…”
C onfession “I cannot…; only You can…”
T hanksgiving “I do not…; only You do…”
S upplication “I seek…; You have supplied…”
It is not that there is any inherent power in the ACTS of prayer, or that prayer ACTS, but prayer causes us to continue to recognize and assent to God’s ACTS in Jesus Christ. Over and over again, moment-by-moment, “without ceasing” (I Thess 5:17) we remember and recognize the grace/faith relationship in which we function as Christians.
We are encouraged to persistence and perseverance in prayer because God wants Christians to ever remain in the context of that grace/faith position, wherein the dynamic of God’s grace in Jesus Christ is applied to everything. Nothing is impossible in God’s responses to our prayers of faith (Matt. 17:20), when we allow the divine dynamic of God’s activity in Jesus Christ to be applied to such. On the other hand, “without faith it is impossible to please Him” (Heb. 11:6), for we disallow the activity of Jesus Christ both in us and in the situation.
Since so many of the Biblical statements and admonitions represent prayer as supplicatory asking, requesting or petitioning (Matt. 7:7; 18:19; Mk. 11;24; Lk. 11:9,10; John 14:13,14; 15:7,16; 16:24,26; Rom. 1:10; Phil. 4:6; I Tim. 2:1; James 1:6; 4:2; I John 3:22; 5:14,15), Karl Barth and others have regarded such as central to the understanding of Christian prayer.
“Prayer is petition, ..asking, a seeking and a knocking directed towards God; a wishing, a desiring and a requesting presented to God.” 12
“The most intimate thing in Christian prayer is the fact that the Christian both may ask and actually does ask. The Christian is able to ask and to take because God gives him Himself and all that He possesses. He freely gives us all things (Rom. 8:32). The true worship of God is that man is ready to take and actually does take where God Himself gives, that he seeks and knocks in order that he may really receive. This receiving is Christian prayer in all its centrality as petition. It does not derive from the self-will of the Christian himself, ..it derives from what the Christian receives from God.” 13
“If man simply lays his need before Him and therefore comes to Him as a suppliant, he thereby renounces all arbitrariness towards God, confessing that there can be no question either or representing himself as worthy or of presenting anything worthy to God. When he comes to God simply with his request, he comes with empty hands. But empty hands are necessary when human hands are to be spread out before God and filled by Him. It is these empty hands that God in His goodness wills of us when He bids us pray to Him.
The Christian understands God as the unique source of all good and himself as absolutely needy in relation to Him. He has nothing either to represent or to present to God except himself as the one who has to receive all things from Him.” 14
The supplication of our personal petitions and intercessions for others constantly keeps us in the faith frame of mind, wherein we repeatedly recognize that it is not what we do, but what God does, that comprises the Christian life.
Christian prayer provides the connectivity of obedience and faith in the entirety of the Christian life. That can only be understood, though, when we have a correct understanding of both obedience and faith. Jacques Ellul explains,
“Our intellect, always defective in the things of the Spirit, will trick us into thinking that if there is obedience then there must be an obligation, a compulsion, a duty to pray. Then we fall back into the confusion between law and commandment. Obedience in Christ is the opposite to a duty or an obligation. There is no compulsion. There is the hearing of a word which I receive and which commands me, before which it is mine to obey without pressure or penalty. There is not a duty to pray. Duty sterilizes prayer; it kills the possibility of pray, for duty is impersonal and sterilizing.” 15
“We are summoned, invited by God, with the possibility always open of refusing the invitation, yet knowing that this commandment offers something which previously we had thought impossible.” 16
Obedience in the Christian life is not to be understood in the context of a legal and juridical framework. We are not obeying an externalized Law which demands that we are to love or to pray. Such a conception casts prayer back into a self-effort to please God, for which we are most inadequate. Christ is the end of the forensic law (Rom. 10:4), for the law and character of God is placed within our hearts (Heb. 8:10; 10:16). The primary Greek word for “obedience” in the new covenant literature of the New Testament is hupakouo, meaning “to listen under.” We obey when we listen to God’s direction in our lives, expressed by the Spirit of Christ, and respond in faith, the “obedience of faith” (Rom. 1:5: 16:26). Thus “keeping His commandments, we ask and receive from Him” (I John 3:22).
Likewise, faith must be redefined from its popular misperception of “mental assent to the veracity of propositional truth.” The “prayer offered in faith” (James 5:15) is the prayer in which we respond to God in “our receptivity of His activity” having obediently “listened under” His personal and individualized commandment to us. When we pray “believing” (Matt. 21:22), and “ask in faith” (James 1:6), we are receptive to God’s activity in Jesus Christ and “believe that we have received” (Mk. 11:24) for we understand that God truly wants to give us everything in the Christian life. Barth notes that when
“the Christian prays, he asks, with a strong assurance that he will be heard even as he asks. He does not need a great faith to do this. He needs only real faith. Without faith the Christian cannot pray, just as without faith he cannot be a Christian at all.” 17
Prayer is the breath of the Christian life. “The prayer of the Christian to God is the basic act of the obedience engendered in faith.”18 Christians engage in prayer because it is the only way to live the Christian life constantly aware of our receptivity of His activity in faith and obedience. Ellul cautions,
“If, for the Christian, prayer becomes impossible, dead, troublesome, uncertain, … the sole basic problem is that we do not make the decision to obey, since we do not take the commandment seriously, and if that is the case it is because we are not living the faith which has its foundation in Jesus Christ.” 19
“The absence of prayer and the difficulty of praying are the evidence for the absence of faith.” 20
“Since it is a real encounter with God, the lack of prayer forces us to consider the lack of reality in our faith.” 21
Prayer is the continual process whereby we live in faith and obedience. It need not even be expressed in the verbalization of words, for it becomes a lifestyle of prayer.
“While we do not know how to pray or what to pray as we ought, the ascended High Priest sends us His own Spirit who helps us in our weakness by making the prayers and intercessions of Christ inaudibly to echo in our stammering in such a way that our prayers and intercessions become a participation in His before the throne of the Father in heaven.” 22
Some have objected that such a view of Christian prayer can lead to passivism. If we are living in the awareness of our grace/faith relationship with God, and affirming the Lordship of Jesus Christ by saying, “Yes Lord; not my will, but Thine be done” (Matt. 26:39), does this cause people to cease to pray? On the contrary, it should cause them to “pray without ceasing” (I Thess. 5:17), for we need constantly to recognize that it is not what we do, but what God does, that constitutes and enacts the abundance of life (John 10:10). It should be noted, though, that an appeal to a perennial attitude of receptivity in a lifestyle of prayer should not be used as an excuse to refrain and abstain from particular occasions of prayerful intercourse with God. In both our specific times of prayer and in the general receptivity of a constant lifestyle of prayer, we continue to recognize that the Person and activity of Jesus Christ is God’s answer to all Christian prayer.
Inadequate Forms of Prayer
The foregoing explanation of Christocentric prayer necessarily forms a denial of the general or religious forms and ideas of prayer that are so prevalent today. A brief listing must suffice to explain that:
Christian prayer is NOT an activity in which we engage in order to please and appease God. God is pleased and appeased by the Person and work of Jesus Christ, and what He has accomplished in His “finished work” (John 19:30).
Christian prayer is NOT a meritorious performance or “work” that God expects of us. Christ’s performance and work on our behalf is the sole basis of our being credited, imputed and imparted with righteousness.
Christian prayer is NOT something that we do for God or offer to God. God needs nothing done for Him. He “lacks nothing.”
“Prayer consists less in man offering something to God and doing something for Him than in turning to Him, seeking, asking and accepting from Him something he needs. It is our longing for Him and for what He alone can give.” 23
Christian prayer is NOT a duty or an obligation based upon a legal concept of obedience, wherein our self-effort proves our sincerity or “earns points” before God.
Christian prayer is NOT an exercise designed to make us better, stronger, more knowledgeable, or more “spiritual.” Jesus Christ is the basis of our strength, knowledge and spiritual maturity.
Christian prayer is NOT for personal interest and pleasure (James 4:3), or for the self-aggrandizement that makes us “look good” before God and others. God knows our hearts!
Christian prayer is NOT for the purpose of developing subjective “good feelings” and emotions which prove cathartic or therapeutic in psychological adjustment.
Christian prayer is NOT a process of psychological gymnastics whereby we work ourselves into a subjective state which we might think is “faith” which will insure the granting of our prayers.
Christian prayer is NOT self-instruction whereby we gain a knowledge of ourselves and God’s will. Such is anthropocentric prayer, rather than Christocentric prayer.
Christian prayer is NOT a means of eliciting or soliciting more “blessings” or “benefits” from God. “God has blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus” (Eph. 1:3).
Christian prayer is NOT a means of presenting God with information. We must not deny the omniscience of God, for “your Father knows what you need, before you ask Him” (Matt. 6:32).
Christian prayer is NOT asking God to “engineer” a situation to the particular plan that we desire to see enacted.
Christian prayer is NOT an evasion of the problems and anxieties of contemporary existence here on earth. We want to see how Christ is working in the midst of such.
Christian prayer is NOT a superstitious, mystical or magical trance, wherein we seek to enter into a spiritual fusion of oneness and unity with God.
Christian prayer is NOT a “power tool” that always works when we push the button of the inexorable “law of prayer” or employ the “power of prayer.”
Christian prayer is NOT a “discipline” or devotional exercise that will in and of itself lead us into godliness.
Christian prayer is NOT a method, program or system, the techniques and procedures of which will guarantee results.
Christian prayer is NOT an instrument that we use, such as a “heavenly telephone” with a “hot line” to God.
Christian prayer is NOT man “laying hold of God” and demanding of Him or commanding Him to act.
Christian prayer is NOT a persistent and “shameless” (Lk. 11:8) haranguing of God until we get we we want.
Christian prayer is NOT an expression of undue care or anxiety for oneself or others. We are to “cast all our cares and concerns upon Christ.”
Christian prayer is NOT external actions that are pretentious and ostentatious “in order to be seen by men” (Matt. 6:5,6).
Christian prayer is NOT the verbosity of “meaningless repetition” (Matt. 6:7) in the saying of “long prayers” (Matt. 23:14; Mk. 12:40).
Christian prayer is NOT the mechanical ritual of repeating rote formulas, somewhat like spinning the Tibetan “prayer wheel.” C.S. Lewis noted that “simply to say prayers is not to pray; otherwise a team of properly trained parrots would serve as well.” 24
Christian prayer is NOT an activity that can be executed “on command,” as a form of social convention in litanies, rosaries, invocations and the like.
Christian prayer is NOT event-centered in a prescribed place, at a prescribed time, utilizing a prescribed procedure.
Christian prayer is NOT a communicational language or discourse that can be analyzed by the content of the words. It does not depend on our ability to speak the language (Romans 8:26).
Christian prayer is NOT pedagogical, polemic or proclamatory. It is not prayer if it is addressed to anyone other than God.
Christian prayer is NOT passivism, acquiesence or inertia that concludes that “God is going to do what He’s going to do anyway; Thy will be done!”
Christian prayer is NOT resignation, avoidance or indifference which says, “Go your way; I will pray for you” (James 2:15,16).
Christian prayer is NOT limited to a punctiliar “point in time” or an existential “affair of the moment.” It can be the constancy of a lifestyle wherein we “pray without ceasing” (I Thess. 5:17).
These denials should serve to refocus our understanding of Christian prayer as Christocentric prayer. The dynamic reality of the life of Jesus Christ makes Christian prayer radically different from all forms of religious prayer. Christ is the basis for the divine/human intimacy of Christian prayer. He is the Pray-er of Christian prayer as the Spirit of Christ activates and empowers all that we do as Christians. He is the answer to all Christian prayer, for all that God does He does through Jesus Christ.
The words of Jacques Ellul serve as a fitting conclusion to such a study on Christocentric prayer.
“Theology can tell us what prayer is, can enlighten us on the meaning of the revelation concerning prayer and on the place which prayer occupies in the revelation. It can describe for us accurately ‘what man does when he prays.’ But all this comes to nothing when man does not pray.”25
Joining with the disciples, our petition might be, “Lord, teach us to pray” (Luke 11:1).
1 Grubb, Norman, God Unlimited. Fort Washington: Christian Literature Crusade. 1972. pg. 158.
2 cf. “The Perfect Man” in manuscript Man… As God Intended. by James A. Fowler. Fallbrook: CIY Publishing. 1994.
3 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics. Vol. III, Part 3. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. 1960. pg. 275.
4 Grubb, Norman, op. cit., pg. 162.
5 Torrance, T.F., Theology in Reconciliation. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. 1975. pg. 209.
6 Lewis, C.S., “The Efficacy of Prayer” in The World’s Last Night and Other Essays by C.S. Lewis. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Pub. 1960. pg. 10.
7 Lewis, C.S., Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. 1963. pg. 68.
8 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics. Vol. III, part 4. Edinburgh: T&t Clark. 1961. pg. 108.
9 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics. Vol. III, Part 3. pg. 271.
10 Barth, Karl, Ibid., pg. 273.
11 Barth, Karl, Ibid., pg. 274.
12 Barth, Karl, Ibid., pg. 268.
13 Barth, Karl, Ibid., pg. 270.
14 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics. Vol. III, Part 4. pg. 97.
15 Ellul, Jacques, Prayer and Modern Man. New York: Seabury Press. 1970. pg. 111.
16 Ellul, Jacques, Ibid., pg. 112.
17 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics, Vol. III, Part 3. pg. 283.
18 Barth, Karl, Ibid., pg. 283.
19 Ellul, Jacques, op. cit., pg. 117.
20 Ellul, Jacques, Ibid., pg. 118.
21 Ellul, Jacques, Ibid., pg. 119.
22 Torrance, T. F., op. cit., pg. 213.
23 Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics, Vol. III, Part 4. pg. 87.
24 Lewis, C.S., World’s Last Night. pg. 6.
25 Ellul, Jacques, op. cit. pg. 52.
Meditation is not always easy, but getting started is quite simple. In his book Christian Meditation, James Finley lays out some basic guidelines:
“The guidelines for meditation practice that I suggest are, with respect to the body, to sit still, to sit straight, to close your eyes or lower them toward the ground, to breathe slowly and naturally, and to place your hands in a natural or meaningful position in your lap. With respect to the mind, the guideline is to be present, open, and awake, neither clinging to nor rejecting anything. And with respect to attitude, the guideline is to maintain nonjudgmental compassion toward yourself as you experience yourself clinging to and rejecting everything, and nonjudgmental compassion toward others in their powerlessness, one with yours. “
The following exerts are from Indiginized Christian Worship in India: Some Considerations.
“Another significant aspect that the Indian church lost in worship was the posture of worship. In most Indian religions worshipers sit on a thick mattress spread on the floor. People sit on the floor, with their legs crossed, as an expression of their respect to their deity. During the time of prayer they kneel, with their heads bowed to the ground. But the Christian churches accepted the Western form of sitting on pews for worship. According to the Hindu tradition no one may enter the place of worship unclean or wearing sandals. But Christian churches do not emphasize these aspects in their worship. In the mind of an Indian these show a lack of respect and devotion to God.”
“Preaching in Indian churches is also influenced by the western heritage. Indian churches typically use an elevated pulpit or a preaching stand. In recent years, influenced by the charismatic preaching seen on international Christian television channels, the preacher tends to move around on the pulpit and preach very loud in his attempt to imitate the Christianity viewed on the television. But in Indian tradition, teachers of the scriptures sit on the floor on a slightly elevated place with the scripture open in a small book holder. The name of the Hindu scriptures, upanishads, is a word picture of this aspect of teaching in Indian context. Upanishad means the inner, or mystic, teaching. The term upanishad is derived from upa (‘near’), ni (‘down’) and s(h)ad (‘to sit’): that is, sitting down near. Groups of pupils sit near the teacher to learn from him. This does not match with today’s Christian preaching.”
Now, say you had Hindu neighbours who expressed interest in learning more about Jesus. You are invited to their house. Could you adapt your worship posture and teaching style to a form they found more natural, even if it felt less natural to you?
I think we need to return to the gospel. Jesus is our advocate in the court of opinion that matters most. And he’s the same for our political enemies as well for the most part. I have found that the left and the right can both be legalistic when it comes to what others are doing and licentious when it comes to what they themselves are doing. We need to break the cycle and move beyond legalism and licence and towards grace. That does not mean ignoring their injustices but it does suggest we should confess our own even as we point out theirs and put Jesus on the pedestal rather than ourselves. I find if my critiques are tempered with self confession the conversations tend to be more charitable.
An essential aspect of a sent Christian lifestyle, in my experience, is worshipping as you go. If you’re going to be connecting with God in the world, if you’re going to be modelling church amongst the unchurched, it’s important to develop the discipline of worshipping God, wherever you are, with whatever you’ve got. Even if it’s as simple as meditating on who God is and what God is doing in the world and giving thanks. That can be done anywhere, even outdoors. Indeed being outdoors can even be an aid to that kind of worship.
I don’t know about you, but I find it so much more engaging to worship God without the artificial enhancements of sound systems and electric lighting, to worship God in more natural ways, under the open sky, with my naked feet in touch with the earth. It may sound strange to worship God this way, in this day and age. Yet if we recall the story of Jesus, this is often how he and his earliest followers engaged with God – praising and praying as they crossed fields, mountains, and lakes. It wasn’t so strange to them.