Been doing some more research on the connection between personality type, tendency towards mysticism and involvement in new religious movements and found an interesting article entitled, “Personality and motivations to believe, misbelieve and disbelieve in paranormal phenomena”. Here are some pertinent extracts:

Paranormal beliefs and experiences are associated with certain personality factors, including absorption, fantasy proneness, and the Myers-Briggs intuition and feeling personality dimensions. Skepticism appears to be associated with materialistic, rational, pragmatic personality types. Attitude toward psi may also be influenced by motivations to have control and efficacy, to have a sense of meaning and purpose in life.

When psi experiences have been examined without a bias for control, the primary effect has been found to be enhanced meaning in life and spirituality, similar to mystical experiences. Tensions among those with mystical, authoritarian, and scientific dispositions have been common in the history of paranormal and religious beliefs. Scientific research can do much to create better understanding among people with different dispositions. Understanding the motivations related to paranormal beliefs is a prerequisite for addressing questions about when and if psi actually occurs.

Broughton (1991, p. 10) noted that surveys typically find that over half of the population report having had a psi experience, but closer examination of the cases suggests that only about 10% to 15% of the population have had experiences that appear to be possible psi. This estimate is consistent with early surveys (Rhine, 1934/1973, p. 17) and with later studies (Haight, 1979; Schmiedler, 1964). At least 70% to 80% of the people reporting psychic experiences appear to be misinterpreting the experiences.

The purpose of this article is to summarize and discuss some of the key personality factors and motivations that appear to be relevant for understanding why people believe, misbelieve, and disbelieve in the paranormal. Of course, innumerable personal, social, and cultural factors may have a role in attitude toward the paranormal. The present discussion is intended as a starting point focusing on selected prominent factors. These factors are diverse, and the possibility of conflicting motivations should be recognized.

Paranormal and mystical beliefs are closely related. The personality factors most consistently associated with paranormal beliefs and experiences are the interrelated cluster of absorption, fantasy-proneness, and temporal lobe symptoms. All three of these personality constructs involve a high degree of imagination and fantasy. These factors generally correlate in the .5 to .6 range with each other and with mystical and paranormal experiences (summarized in Kennedy, Kanthamani, & Palmer, 1994).

Based on his work with the Myers-Briggs personality model, Keirsey (1998) stated that people having intuitive, feeling (NF) personality types are mystical in outlook and often explore occultism, parapsychology, and esoteric metaphysical systems. Those with NF dispositions aspire to transcend the material world (and thus gain insight into the essence of things), to transcend the senses (and thus gain knowledge of the soul), to transcend the ego (and thus feel united with all creation), [and] to transcend even time (and thus feel the force of past lives and prophecies), (p. 145)

Research studies have found that belief in paranormal phenomena is associated with the N and F personality factors (Gow, et. al., 2001; Lester, Thinschmidt, & Trautman, 1987; Murphy & Lester, 1976). In a study of a technique attempting to induce a sense of contact with someone who had died, 96% of the participants with NF personality types reported after-death contact experiences, whereas 100% of the participants with ST (sensing, thinking) personality types did not have these experiences (Arcangel, 1997). In a survey of parapsychological researchers, Smith (2003) found that the F factor was associated with experimenters who were rated as psiconducive. Temporal lobe symptoms have been found to be associated with the N and P Myers-Briggs personality factors, and to a weaker extent with F (Makarec & Persinger, 1989). Thin boundaries have been found to be associated with NF personality dispositions (Barbuto & Plummer, 1998).

Taken together, these findings indicate that certain people have innate interests in and motivations for mystical and paranormal experiences. Behavioral genetic research indicates that absorption, the Myers-Briggs personality types, and interest in spirituality all have significant genetic components similar to other personality factors (Bouchard & Hur, 1998; Cary, 2003; Hammer, 2004; Tellegen et al., 1988).

Unconscious. Psychical and mystical experiences are both thought to arise from an unconscious or higher part of the mind and to be facilitated by efforts to still the conscious mind and to reduce superficial unconscious activity. Both types of experience are viewed as a link or doorway to a higher realm of interconnectedness. In fact, the primary difference is that psychical experiences provide information about the material world whereas mystical experiences provide information about the higher realm of interconnectedness itself. William James (1902/1982) noted that the knowledge revealed in mystical experiences may pertain to sensory events (e.g., precognition or clairvoyance) or to metaphysics.

Skeptics also tend to have a greater internal locus of control (belief that they control the events in their lives) than those who believe in psi (summarized in-Irwin, 1993). This is consistent with a stronger motivation for control by skeptics or possibly with less belief in supernatural influences.

The motivation for control may contribute to both skepticism and belief in psi. Research on various aspects of the motivation for control and its interaction with other psychological factors is needed to understand its role in attitude toward the paranormal. The initial evidence suggests that skeptics may tend to have a greater need for control. In fact, the speculations that an illusion of control is a significant factor in psi beliefs have primarily been proposed by skeptics and may be projections of their own needs for control.

If one moves beyond the motivation for control and looks at psi on its own terms, a different motivation emerges as prominent. Many people report experiences of ostensible spontaneous paranormal phenomena that occur without attempting to elicit or control the phenomena (Rhine, 1981; Stokes, 1997). Even a casual review of these reports indicates that the experiences do not seem to be guided by self-serving, materialistic motivations or needs for control.

Research indicates the primary effect of psi experiences is an altered worldview and an increased sense of meaning and purpose in life and spirituality (Kennedy & Kanthamani, 1995; McClenon, 1994, 2002; Palmer, 1979; Palmer & Braud, 2002; White, 1997a, 1997c). For example, Dossey (1999, p. 3) describes how a series of unexpected paranormal experiences changed the direction of his professional career. Similarly, a survey of people who were interested in parapsychology and reported having paranormal or transcendent experiences found that (a) 72% agreed with the statement “As a result of my paranormal or transcendent experience, I believe my life is guided or watched over by a higher force or being,”

The transformative psi experiences appear to guide a person rather than the person guiding psi. This is a significandy different world view than the assumptions of experimental parapsychology. These types of cases may induce an attitude of a humble seeker rather than a sense of control. Dossey (1999, p. 3) characterized his series of psi experiences as: “It was as if the universe, having delivered the message, hung up the phone. It was now up to me to make sense of it.”

Keirsey (1998) described the sensing, judging (SJ) personality types as materialistic, distrusting of fantasy and abstract ideas, and tending to feel a duty to maintain traditional rules of right and wrong. These personality types focus on external authority and tradition rather than internal experience.

People with STJ personality types tend to rise to positions of leadership and authority in hierarchical organizations (Keirsey, 1998; Kroeger, Thuesen, & Rutledge, 2002). Fudjack and Dinkelaker (1994) noted that the masculine “extraverted/rational-empirical/pragmatic/ materialist” ESTJ personality is prominent in western culture and tends to prefer hierarchical organizations that emphasize power and control rather than creativity and flexibility. Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge (2002) administered the Myers-Briggs personality test to over 20,000 people in all levels of a wide variety of corporate, government, and military organizations. Across these diverse groups, they found that 60% of 2,245 people in top executive positions had STf personalities (ESTJ or ISTJ). The proportion of STJ types increased as the level on the management hierarchy increased.

Research indicates that the S personality types are associated with conservative religions that emphasize institutional religious authority and tradition whereas the intuitive (N) types are associated with more liberal, subjective, experiential approaches to religion and tolerance for religious uncertainty (Francis and Ross, 1997; Francis and Jones, 1998,1999; Macdaid, McCaulley, & Kainz, 1986). Similarly, greater dogmatism was associated with the S and J personality types (Ross, Francis, & Craig, 2005).

Other personality models describe related factors like authoritarianism, traditionalism, or right-wing authoritarianism (Altemeyer, 1996; Carey, 2003, pp. 395-398; Spilka et al., 2003, pp. 467-468). Altemeyer (1996) argued that fundamentalism is a religious manifestation of the authoritarian personality. Monaghan (1967) described “authority-seeker” as one of the main motivations for attending a fundamentalist church.

Fundamentalist religions often consider mystical or paranormal experiences as delusions or dangerous events. Pentecostal and charismat
ic religious movements emphasize “gifts of the spirit,” including prophesy, healing, recognition of spirits, performance of miracles, wisdom, and knowledge (Roberts, 1995, p. 370; Rosten, 1975, pp. 591-592). Christian fundamentalists frequently have conflicts with Pentecostals and charismatics because fundamentalists give primacy to the inerrant authority of the Bible rather than to direct spiritual experience (Roberts, 1995, pp. 370-371).

Tensions between those who give primacy to the authority of tradition rather than to direct mystical and miraculous experiences have occurred for centuries, as would be expected if personality dispositions have a role. The life and death of Jesus were based on conflicts between those who maintained rules, authority, and superiority of past traditions versus proponents of inspired teachings supported by claims of paranormal phenomena. Such tensions were also apparent in the reactions within Christianity to the desert ascetics and in the Protestant Reformation (Woodward, 2000). One argument that goes back to at least the sixteenth century is that the miracles described in the Bible were real and were needed to establish the authority of the Bible, but once that authority was established, miracles were not needed and claims for post-biblical miracles are fraudulent or the work of the devil (Mullin, 1996, pp. 12-16). The variation in beliefs among individuals and groups should also be kept in mind. Some of those who focus on authority also believe that supernatural interventions sometimes occur in post-biblical times.

More subjective forms of spirituality can also provide a means for establishing a hierarchy of superiority. Characteristics and criteria for determining who is more spiritually advanced are often proposed (e.g., White, 1972; Wilber, 2000). The claim that one is among a small minority of highly evolved people and that everyone should strive to be like him or her is a common symptom of the drive to achieve a sense of superiority.

Some people build superiority hierarchies in the material world and some build them only in their minds. Those who build superiority hierarchies in the material world tend to have more negative attitudes toward the paranormal. Paranormal and mystical experiences may sometimes be pursued or claimed in an effort to achieve a sense of superiority. Tensions between people with authoritarian and transcendent dispositions have occurred throughout history and appear to underlie many religious and social conflicts.

J E Kennedy (2005). PERSONALITY AND MOTIVATIONS TO BELIEVE, MISBELIEVE, AND DISBELIEVE IN PARANORMAL PHENOMENA. The Journal of Parapsychology, 69(2), 263-292.

31 thoughts on “Personality and Psi

  1. fascinating as an INFP, who is married to an ISTJ, this could almost be a counselling document!!!
    It is interesting to note denominational differences and emphasises can be traced along denominational divides.

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  2. I’m INTP married to an ISFJ. Swap the T-F to account for the gender differences (yes T-F is more gender sensitive than the rest) and we’re the same. Not surprising though. Just about EVERYONE I’ve come across in the emerging church is either NT or NF. I observed this correlation between personality and denomination some time ago and its been a pet interest of mine ever since. I am trying to collect formal research data as I can. Has many interesting implications.

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  3. What Sally said: I’m also an INFP married to an ISTJ. Wow.
    I agree it certainly is denominational to some extent, but we (together) have tried both pentecostal (my tradition) and cessationist (his tradition) and the explanation for why we both found it exceedingly difficult to change our views is aided by this article. I have always wondered if personality had any bearing on religious beliefs, thanks for sharing this.

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  4. Actually, I should add, I find it helpful to think through these different combinations. It suggests ENFP/INFP as the most receptive to paranormal and mystical experience and ESTJ/ISTJ as the least receptive.
    As an INTP I fall in between, I have N and P, which suggests receptivity and T, which does not. The article suggests that NTs, being science inclined, can be very skeptical types but given evidence to work with they are capable of adjust their views. Guess what? I was once a hardened agnostic but had a few experiences along the way and dove into mysticism. No surprises that my favourite apostle is Thomas, the doubter. I do need evidence. No surprises that I am not just interested in meditation practice but also meditation theology. I am highly intuitive, and receptive, provided thinking is satisfied.
    I think it would be interesting to explore the ISFP and ESFP combinations too and how often they crop up in less fundamentalist charismatic circles.

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  5. Matt,
    I belong to an email list of folks interested in discussing NT Wright’s works. A while back someone asked for an informal poll of MB profiles. Of the 30-some folks who posted theirs, 100% were N. Wright is also purportedly an N (rest of profile unknown to me).
    Dana

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  6. Thanks Dana, I’ll add that to my list of anecdotal evidence.
    If I recall correctly the standard distribution of intuitives in the general population is generally around 33 percent, give or take some. Even a 66 percent occurance in a subculture would be significant deviation from norm. But when I’ve taken spot polls amongst emerging leaders I know, like yourself I’ve seen it climb over the 90 percent range. And I’ve got an inkling from the New Age and Neo Pagan types I know that a similar thing could be going on there.
    This is very suggestive and should grab peoples attention. It suggests personality type could be a significant factor in why alternative religions and alternative expressions of Christianity are bubbling to the surface all over the west.
    I have an untested theory that goes along the lines that the resistance to creative thought and creative expression within the established churches is proving most toxic for Ns and, where interal resistance to change is most extreme, the Ns are jumping ship. This is being helped by the rise in power of cultural creatives in society as we shift to an innovation economy. Ns have more power in the emerging context and they’re starting to flex their muscles.
    It is driving them to seek change in many ways, and that the New Age Movement and the Emerging Church are both fallout from this. The lesson for the established church is, if you don’t want to loose your creative thinkers and artists, give them some space. If you hold on too tight you’ll loose them and you’ll suffer for it. The warning for the Ns is, consider what we loose when we create communities with little or no S input whatsoever. Lack of stability and sustainability. Ultimately we need each other. Negotiating some mutually acceptable solutions is the challenge. Funny enough I find the negotiations that go on in my own marriage is a microcosm of what needs to happen in the wider church macrocosm. If we could recognize that yes, we are all family and we all ultimately need each other maybe some progress can be made.

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  7. Well, being an ENTJ married to an INTP, I feel a little off the beaten track — so what else is new, eh? ;^)
    Interesting in my case, however, is that the E and J are HUGE, while the N and T are slight. That just makes me muddier, I suspect….

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  8. I think you’re on to something with the creativity issue. Last summer I held an (albeit unscientific) poll among the bloggers in my circle, which tend to be more free-thinking religious types, and 25% were INFP’s, way above the societal average. Now whether that is due to my keeping a certain kind of company comes to bear on it…but then again, birds of a feather and all that. So many INFP’s had similar experiences in church that it did cause me to think if it was simply a certain personality type that is more likely to question or leave traditional/evangelical religion. So then we INFP’s, like you said, tend to seek community with little S/T input, eventually to our own detriment.
    I guess I’m just thinking aloud.

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  9. Oh, its all a bit muddy Peggy. I think it works best if we think in terms of “tendencies” rather than rigid categories. I am not suggesting personality type determines denominational fate, or that environmental factors are unimportant, only that personality type does seem to be loading the dices somewhat. That you are only a slight NT still gels with the essential argument, that there is something non-random behind the preponderance of Ns in the emerging church and that it speaks of an “unpaid bill” within the established church.

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  10. This is fascinating Matt … I’ve often wondered about the predominance of the N in emerging circles as well. I’d come to some similar conclusions as you, but have not been keeping any kind of count (even anecdotally). I think you’re spot on with your analysis of creativity being stifled in the more institutional church. It’s very sad to me that it’s seen as such a zero-sum game which drives all the creative types out. But that seems to the be current state of affairs.
    I’m an INFP married to an ENFP … try that one on. 😉
    And, Peggy, I just **knew** you were an E and a J. Your middle letters were more of a mystery … but now I know why 😀

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  11. What started me off was a similar straw poll amongst a missional leaders gathering I was hosting (that included Phil Johnson) and a small group I was co-leading. It showed 90% N in both. And those who were Ss were generally partners of other members coming for support more than interest. Then I started asking others, like Mike Frost and I think Alan Hirsch also. Then I went international, with people I knew over the net,in NZ and the US. Same result: way out of sync with the norm. Most either NF or NT. Even the silly little online tests that were popular at one stage turned up similar data. Something was going on. That’s what got me reading further afield.
    The general tendancy seems to be, the alternative worship artists seem to be NF more often than not, the alternative theology conversationalists tend to be NT more often than not. Not exclusively but substantially.
    It is probably worthwhile recapping on the traits of both N and S.
    Sensing Characteristics
    *Mentally live in the Now, attending to present opportunities
    *Using common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctual
    *Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past events
    *Best improvise from past experience
    *Like clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are “fuzzy”
    Intuitive Characteristics
    *Mentally live in the Future, attending to future possibilities
    *Using imagination and creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic-instinctual
    *Memory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and connections
    *Best improvise from theoretical understanding
    *Comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning.
    Now, how many disagreements between the emerging church and the established church have been over things just like this. We’re too fuzzy, they’re not contextual enough. We ride rough shod over doctrine, they don’t appreciate story and symbol and creativity enough. Sound familiar?
    We can be a pain in the butt to one another, but if we ignore each other, yes I think it will ultimately be to the detriment of both. So I think our cries for space for creativity are valid, but they must be tempered with the realization that our movement will probably blow itself apart without stabilizing S input. We need them to anchor us, they need us to meet the future.

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  12. Amen … it’s funny (weird) but your last paragraph there is almost exactly the same thing my husband said about something completely different as we were going to dinner tonight (long before I read this post).
    He said and I’m paraphrasing, that we need the tension that comes from balancing between the two extremes to provide the energy to keep us all moving forward. It’s the friction that comes from attempting to get along and working things out that gives us energy. I think that’s a really important concept. Just stuffing down the things we don’t understand, or running away when we don’t have a voice is not a good answer. Although, at the moment, it seems to be the only answer … and that makes me sad.

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  13. Seriously, I think the solution might come with a really good understanding that some things are just personality/perception differences and not doctrinal or salvation issues.
    I really appreciate this conversation because it confirms something I’ve suspected, which makes it much easier to understand and get along spiritually with those who are different than me. Because in the past I’ve felt so personally attacked…and I’m learning that is not really so.

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  14. Oh, I think there are doctrinal issues but I would put it this way. Sensors (S) provide doctrinal stability. Intuitives (N) provide doctrinal innovation. Both are required for an authentic missional response to culture.
    A movement with no doctrinal or theological stability is at risk of flying off into never-never-land. This is what established types complain about and they have a point … to a point. But a movement with no doctrinal innovation or theological creativity or contemporary insight is liable to ossify. It becomes a dead thing fit only for museums. Its an affront to the living Word. A creative God calls for creative mission to a creative world. The creative Spirit should not be suppressed. We have a point too … to a point.
    But yes, our personalities can wire us to perceive things in a worse light than they possibly are. If God has wired us in different ways then all those ways are ultimately good. We all need to seek to find the good in the different perspectives and integrate them. We can’t force the establishment to recognize this, but maybe we can try to model the future we would like to see ourselves and yes stick with the tension even when it hurts. This is why I try to “emerge” within the establishment as much as I can cope with.
    Recognizing this is not always personal attack is, as you say, a most important realization. Doesn’t solve the problem but I think its the first step in the solution.

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  15. Oh, I didn’t mean to say there aren’t any theological issues, just that SOME differences can be chalked up to perception because of personality, not right/wrong.
    Anyhow, you have very good points about the balance. I wish it were easier to bring about.

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  16. Oh yes, right with you on some of it being perception, when I first met my wife (before she was my wife) we used to sit and debate issues for hours after Bible study meetings, only to discover, after much angst, that we were arguing towards the same point … but from different starting points using different language. Half of our disagreements were mirages. The other half often required us both to shift. After we’d had enough “doh” moments we gradually learned to relax our presumptions as to what the other was saying and sit with the cognitive disconnects till we mutually understood. Took a long time. And a strong commitment to one another. This is what I see needs to happen on a wider scale. May we find more established types that will sit with us. May God grant us the commitment and patience to sit with them.

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  17. Matt – So funny you say that, because a good friend and I discovered the same thing a few years back. She and I are different and love to debate, but over time it became apparent that often we were on the same side of an issue, just coming from different starting places and using different language.
    Funny, too, I was wondering when Cindy would show up with her ST. 🙂 Do you (Cindy) agree with the idea about S’s being more likely to be skeptical?
    Sonja – That’s the thing. Maybe it’s just me (and you) but I can be OK with them easier than they can be OK with me. Heresy arrows.
    This is just interesting to me.

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  18. erin- if i’m a good example, the s’s certainly are skeptical. but that doesn’t necessarily determine the direction of the skepticism. I am skeptical of everything, so i’m evenly biased against everything in the beginning 😉
    however, when an s- especially an stj- has thoroughly evaluated and concluded which choice has the most value, you won’t find a more staunch supporter. you will find more vocal supporters, but not more steadfast. so, while stj’s may take longer to get there, we will stand firm once arrived.
    plus, when an stj, being honest and straightforward to a fault, is dealt with in a less than honorable way, it will not be forgotten. that is why you will indeed find us in the emerging church. the modern church has so often failed us in regard to sincerity and dedication to stated values that we are forced to see the imprudence of continuing on that path.
    remember- for us it’s almost all about economy and rationality- economy of energy, resources, time, combined with whether it’s rational and logical to pursue a certain path. much of the emerging is busy wasting time with words right now, so i would guess that a lot of us are simply waiting for that the settle down a bit before getting on board. :-)does that answer your question and then some?

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  19. “…we will stand firm once arrived.”
    Cindy, that’s exactly what I mean by saying we need S stability to ensure sustainability. Once we get a core number of S types on board we can be sure we are reaching the tipping point because Ss will take it and run with it. I see the Ss who are currently onboard as potentially very important as “translators” between the emerging church and the established church.

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  20. Thanks for sharing all that, Cindy, I hope you don’t mind that I asked.
    Seriously, like Matt said, ST’s are the voice of reason among a bunch of dreamy-flighty NF’s. We tend to be dreamers but not so much doers…if that makes any sense. I listen to myself talk big all the time, then there is subversive you, actually working to see changes happen in your church.
    “much of the emerging is busy wasting time with words right now”. Yep, that’s me. Does that frustrate you?
    And translators often make a lot of money… 🙂

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  21. Cindy, a tortured misfit amongst tortured misfits, now there’s a vocation!
    Erin, I think NTs and STs might have some areas of disagreement over who’s the voice of reason (grins) but we all agree NFs are dreamy (grins more). But seriously, where there are no dreams the people perish.

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  22. Oh, and here is some info from Phil Johnson that I am sure readers of this thread will find interesting:
    “Two new essays of more than routine interest. I do not have access (short of paying online for them!) but here are the bibliographical details and essay abstracts.”
    “The first essay consists of more material from Leslie Francis on personality types and churches, this time a survey on Anglican clergy/lay attitudes to Celtic Christianity.”
    “(1). “Psychological Type and Attitude towards Celtic Christianity among Committed Churchgoers in the United Kingdom: An Empirical Study” by Leslie J. Francis, Charlotte Craig and Gill Hall, Journal of Contemporary Religion, Volume 23, number 2, May 2008, pp 181-191.”
    “Abstract: This article takes the burgeoning interest in Celtic Christianity as a key example of the way in which churches may be responding to the changing spiritual and religious landscape in the United Kingdom today and examines the power of psychological type theory to account for variation in the attitude of committed churchgoers to this innovation. Data provided by a sample of 248 Anglican clergy and lay church officers (who completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales together with the Attitude toward Celtic Christianity Scale) demonstrated that intuitive types, feeling types, and perceiving types reported a more positive attitude towards Celtic Christianity than sensing types, thinking types, and judging types. These findings are interpreted to analyse the appeal of Celtic Christianity and to suggest why some committed churchgoers may find this innovation less attractive.”
    “The abstract for Leslie Francis’ work again reconfirms the anecdotes and hunches we have had about intuitive feeling types inclined to Celtic Christian meditation/worship, while sensing judging types don’t like it. That pretty much compares to what we have suspected about people into Emerging Church groups; and again what it suggests by way of comparison with those who jump into aspects of New Age and aspects of Neopaganism and the paranormal (and I would add – John – a fair number of those jumping into “Second Life” as a virtual world). Again Leslie Francis’ stuff has a contributory role to play in reflecting on Christian missional activities with alternate spiritualities – matching personality types between church and non-Christians as part of the overall foundations laid in missionary activity in our western contexts with nrms.”
    There is more but it is less relevant for this thread. I draw attention to the fact that it is the same three traits, N, F and P that come up here. My hunch is that not all factors are equal, that N is a bigger factor than the rest, but the hunch requires testing. But interesting no?

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  23. Very interesting. Thanks for sharing all that. I haven’t ever pursued any form of celtic practice, but it has always fascinated me.
    So, based on this, we can just type everyone and tell them what kind of church to go to where they will be happy.
    (I’m kidding…it should be so easy.)

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  24. No, as the original study I quested here suggests preference depends on experience and control issues too – its not all personality. And then there’s that niggling suggestion that the these findings point to “unpaid bills” within the church and maybe going with the flow won’t address the deeper problems that precipitated the N,F,P exodus.

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