If you know nothing else about Islamic ritual and practice make sure you know this. These are known as the five pillars of Islam.
Shahadah: declaring there is no god except God and that Muhammad is God’s Messenger
Salat: ritual prayer five times a day
Zakat: giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy
Sawm: fasting and self-control during the holy month of Ramadan
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if one is able