The Real History of Halloween

jesus-pumpkin.jpgGiven that Halloween is only a week away and references are coming up in Facebook, World of Warcraft and all sorts of places, I thought it would be worthwhile exploring the meaning of Halloween from a Christian perspective. The following article was written by Caitlin Smith, a former Occultist and online acquaintance of mine. If it seems a little too conservative in places, that’s because it was written with conservatives in mind. Even so, much to my horror, she has been harassed over it. I would suggest however, that you would have to search far and wide for a more balanced account. And note, the accompanying image is my addition, not hers, and I take full responsibility for it.

The Real History of Halloween

There are a lot of stories told about Halloween. Some stories are fond remembrances of family celebration, spooky stories, “trick-or-treating” in the neighbourhood, bobbing for apples, and the genial fun of a night of mischief. Some stories are profound and moving worship of God through the mourning loss of those who have died over the years. Some are stories of the end of labour, as the harvest finally draws to a close and winter begins, bringing with it the care and worries that the season brings to farmers.

All of those stories are true ones, and many of us have heard them one way or another. Yet there are other stories told of this time of year: stories of ancient Druids who terrorized the populace into giving bribes ranging from the best cattle to virgin daughters; stories of gruesome witches who poison candy and steal children for horrid sacrifices; stories of dark occult practices, and of modern-day evildoers, who use the mystery of this night to perpetrate acts of atrocity.

Year after year, Christians are warned of tainted treats, dangerous pranks, or random acts of cruelty that some people play on others on this night. Such warnings are certainly important, and should be heeded. Yet there are also sermons, tracts, and literature that speak of spiritual danger, portraying Halloween as the “Day of the Devil,” and telling a dark history of cruelty and evil. Yet others—some Christiansome not—have come forward to decry these statements as falsehoods.

Christians are called to resist the devil: yet we are also called to speak the truth. If, as some state, Halloween is the Devil’s Day, then of course Christians should shun it, “for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness?” [1] Yet how are we as Christians to know the facts of the claims being made? More importantly, once we know the facts, how shall we respond to them in a manner
that honours Jesus?

Do Druids Trick-or-Treat?

There are a great many things we “know” about the Halloween. We “know” that the Druids were the priests of the Celts. We “know” that Halloween was an ancient Celtic festival, where the Druids would go from house to house asking for sacrifices (the origins of “trick or treat”). We “know” that the Druids would take humans as sacrifices (hence the stories that modern Witches and Satanists will do the same). We “know” that the Druids held the Celts in awe and fear by reason of their power, until the advent of Christianity (hence St. Patrick’s confrontation with the Druids, as represented by his “driving the snakes from Ireland”). The problem with all that we “know” is that most, if not all, of it is wrong.

Most people assume that it was the Celts who started Halloween. It is quite true that there was an Irish festival called Samhain but this was not the name of a god in Celtic mythology; indeed, we cannot even be sure if Samhain was a religious festival as we envisage today.

In modern Irish Gaelic, the word Samhain simply means “The end of summer,” and
refers to the harvest festivals that scholars speculate probably occurred at that time. We can imagine a joyful festival, rather like the modern Thanksgiving in America or the Harvest Home church festivals of the UK, or we can imagine dark rituals of sacrifice and divination, but the honest truth is that we do not know how, or even if, the Celts celebrated Samhain. No evidence survives, and the Celts left no written records, and if anyone definitively says that the Druids did this or the Celts did that for the festival of
Samhain, they’re either speculating or lying outright.

Scholars are fairly certain that the Celts did not have a “unified” religion. The Gods of one tribe were called by different names than the Gods of other tribes, and though much speculation has been made about the role of the Druids in unifying the Celts, there is no archive or archaeological evidence to support this.

It must be understood that the Celts were not a single people: though they
spoke similar languages, the Celts were over a hundred different tribes that
usually got along almost as well as Liverpool and Millwall fans in the UK.
Surviving Celtic literature—such as the Táin Bó Cúalnge [2] of Ireland, or The
Mabinogion [3] of Wales—is rife with tales of raids, wars, and grudges nursed
and passed on over generations. Additionally, contemporary authors—including
Tacitus [4] and Julius Caesar [5]—tell us that the Celts were just as likely to
start a fight between themselves as they were to go to war against the Romans,
or the neighbouring Germanic tribes. With this kind of reputation, it hardly
seems that the Druids could have been an all-powerful force within the tribes
as a group, though it is quite possible that they may have held considerable
power within an individual tribe.

What about human sacrifice?

At the time of writing, there is one archaeological find that contains sufficient evidence of ritual that has led archaeologists to suppose that he MIGHT have been a sacrifice—or might not
have been one. Whilst other bodies have been found within the Celtic time
period in contexts that have lead scholars to suggest they may have been
murdered or had unusual burial rites performed upon them [6] this is a long way
short of the quantities of bodies described by the Roman contemporary
historians of that time. The famous “Lindow Man” also known to the press as
‘Pete Marsh’ was one of four bodies so far [7] discovered in a peat bog near
Manchester in 1984, and while Drs. Ann Ross and Don Robins of the Institute of
Archaeology at the University of London have published a popular book
concerning this “Druidic Prince,” the fact of the matter remains that many of
their arguments are based on weaving a cloak of supposition from a scant few
threads of evidence. [8]

And what of the advent of Christianity destroying the power of the Druids? Both
in England and in Ireland, many of the Druids converted without dissent or
quarrel: Adomnan of Iona writes in his Life of St. Columbus that several Druids
who were converted were granted large tracts of land by the Church, [9] and we
know that the class of Druids was recognized by post-Christian Irish law. [10]
Indeed, from the evidence now available, the Druids were not the “priests,” but
were the intellectual caste of the Irish, skilled in such disciplines as
philosophy, poetry, history, astronomy, music, medicine, sorcery, and prophecy
or divination; this parallels the Brahmins, who are the intellectual caste of
the Hindu. It is probably true that priests were drawn from the Druidic caste,
but again, this is speculation, not definite knowledge.

One thing that must be acknowledged about the Druids was their connection with
magic and divination, both of which are forbidden by the Bible, and their
possible connection with pre-Christian worship. However, it should also be
acknowledged that the Druids were a recognized and accepted part of the
administration of laws of Ireland well into the late eleventh or early twelfth

Indeed, as both the civil and criminal law code of Ireland survive in their
completest form in the ‘Leabhar na h Uidre’ (Book of the Dun Cow) dating from
the late eleventh or early twelfth centuries, it might be remarked that there
had been no amendment of the laws relating to the Druids by that time. Two
reasons can be argued: One, that the Druids still existed with a definite, if
diminished, role in Irish society; Two, that the Druids had vanished and so no
one bothered to change the laws. [11]

It is likely that the Celts, as did most ancient societies, had some form of
harvest festival—but we do not know what they did, how they celebrated, or even
with certainty whether or not they did. It is quite probable that at least some
of the Celtic priests were of the Druidic caste, but not all Druids were
priests, and we are not certain that all priests were Druids. It is likely that
the Druids did engage in sacrifices, perhaps even human sacrifices, but the
only evidence we have for this are the writings of their enemies in war, and
the uncertain evidence of a handful of archaeological finds.

Our knowledge of the Celts and the Druids—what little we have of it—does
nothing to explain the origins of Halloween. Yet history does show that the roots of this celebration do rest
in Ireland and England—specifically, the Ireland and England of the Medieval
and Renaissance ages.


The establishment of All Saints
day is relatively well documented. Originally held the first Sunday after
Pentecost, the date was moved to November 1st by Gregory III when he dedicated
a chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter to “All the Saints.” In 835, Gregory IV
permanently moved the celebration to November 1. [12] Originally, All Saints
Day was a solemn occasion, to be celebrated with a vigil spent in fasting and prayers
the evening, followed by a “feast day,” a day to attend Mass and refrain from
servile work. [13]

For some, however, this release from work devolved into a carouse, but even in
this, the medieval Church tried to moderate the worst of the excesses. The
solemnity of All Saints Day became combined with the festivity of harvest
celebrations. While there may have been parades and bonfires and revelry, the
Church worked with the nobility to keep the celebration within reasonable bounds—and
also offered the revellers alternatives to debauchery.

Local practices emerged connected with the harvest glut including local cuisine
specialties: in Europe, apple dishes were a popular food on this day
(especially since the apple harvest ends relatively late in the year), and in
England, the custom of making “soul cakes” to distribute to the poor in
exchange for prayers for deceased members of the donor’s family.

It is to this time that we must look for some of the customs of our modern Halloween. Late autumn was apple
season, and there was a bounty of apples: it becomes evident that this is the
most likely origin of such games as bobbing for apples. The “soul cake” custom
was the probable origin of our modern, “trick-or-treat.” Far from the
horrifying pagan blackmail of pre-Christian Druids imagined by some, this was
actually a method of not only feeding the poor, but of persuading attendance at

This is not to say that all of these activities were innocent. Even at this
time, it is certainly possible that people attempted to divine the future with
apple peels, or by roasting chestnuts. Yet it must be remembered that these
local customs were just that: local, frequently isolated folk practices that
had little influence across cultural or national boundaries. It was not until
the Colonial Age, and the advent of cross continental and inter-continental
travel that these local practices combined to create the Halloween customs that we are familiar with today.

The influence of Emigration and Travel

Harvest celebrations, and the various local customs that attended them, came to America with the waves of colonists.
Just as Europe does not share all its traditions and customs, neither were the
American harvest celebrations identical. In New England, with its heavy
population of Puritans and Calvinists who disapproved of frivolity in any form,
the celebration of harvest festivals was frowned upon; in Maryland and the more
southern colonies such celebrations were popular.

As the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups, as well as the
American Indians, meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge. The first
celebrations included “play parties,” public events held to celebrate the
harvest, where neighbours would share stories of the dead, tell each other’s
fortunes, dance, and sing. Colonial Halloween festivities also featured the telling of ghost stories and mischief
making of all kinds. By the middle of the nineteenth century, annual autumn
festivities were common, but Halloween was not yet celebrated everywhere in the country. [14]

This American indifference was changed by an event in Ireland. The advent of
the Potato Famine in 1846 led to a dramatic influx of Irish immigrants to all
parts of the world, including America. While they certainly brought their
customs and traditions with them—including their Halloween traditions—they faced many obstacles,
including a growing anti-Immigrant and anti-Catholic prejudice. It is possible
that the origins of the “Anti-Halloween” movement stem from this prejudice, as
many of the complaints directed by Christians against Halloween are also directed against the Roman
Catholic Church. [15]

Yet for all of the potential for problems, Halloween adapted to America as readily as the
Irish and English immigrants who took it there.

In the late 1800s, there was a move in America to mould Halloween into a holiday more about
community and neighbourly get-togethers, than about ghosts, pranks, and
witchcraft. At the turn of the century, Halloween parties for both children and adults
became the most common way to celebrate the day. Parties focused on games,
foods of the season, and festive costumes. Parents were encouraged by
newspapers and community leaders to take anything “frightening” or “grotesque”
out of Halloween
celebrations. Because of their efforts, Halloween
lost most of its superstitious and religious overtones by the beginning of the
twentieth century. [16] 

Yet there are problems with Halloween.
It has been known since the 1920s as a night of
mischief, pranks, and vandalism, and since the 1950s, there have been tales
about poisoned and adulterated sweets, diabolical witchcraft, Satanic
sacrifices, and spiritual danger.

Is there any basis to these tales?
Where did they come from? Most importantly, what is a Christian supposed to do about Halloween?

Halloween has long been known as a night of mischief, but in the eyes of
many Christians, it has also become a night of devilment—literally. Since the
1950s, various groups in England, the Americas, and Australia have emerged that
celebrate the time around October 31st as a night dedicated to their pagan

And we Christians have responded;
though not always with wisdom. Since the 1970s, various Christians have come
forward claiming to have once been members of the occult. They have given
testimonies that they had witnessed, been the victims of, and even participated
in, diabolical acts. Lurid tales of sacrifices, orgies, debauchery and cruelty
have sprung up in countless places, and various forces—from Wiccans to
Satanists—have been accused of committing crimes that are almost unspeakable in
their atrocity. [17]

Both Pagan and Christian authors and reporters have called these
witnesses into question, and many of the tales have been proven false.
“Sacrifices” have left no forensic evidence for the investigators; locations
where “bodies were buried” prove to have been undisturbed for decades; and
those who were supposedly engaged in such activities are frequently nowhere
near the location they claimed to have been. Yet these stories continue to
circulate, without evidence—and in some churches, without a critical challenge.

Samhain is a pagan and also a wiccan festival occasionally shared by those
witches and occultist who have empathy with the Celtic deities and entities.
Not all occult practitioners celebrate Samhain.

As far as Satanists are concerned Halloween is not their most high of unholy days it was and will remain
their birthday. The only Satanists you will find celebrating on October 31st
are those who were born on that day. [19] Some satanic lodges do use both
Walpurgis Nacht (30th April) and the 31st October to hold initiations for their
new ‘recruits’ but this has an awful lot more to do with the new recruits
wanting a ‘special’ night in their own eyes a for their initiation to take
place. It is part of the sardonic humour you will find shared by the more
serious students of the occult.

Perhaps the most crucial story about Halloween is that it provides a gateway to the occult.

is potentially harmful when it lures people into exploring occult practices.
Many children are introduced to occultic practices at Halloween parties. Some I meet
have their first occult taster at a Halloween party as teenagers.  Many
kids get their first exposure to the film world’s notion of occult/horror
movies at Halloween
parties. Many will simply treat their experiences as a bit of fun but some
children after an initial exposure are attracted to the occult because of the perceived
power it offers them. For others slipping off to a scary Halloween party is the
ultimate means of rebelling against their parents. [20]

So what is a Christian to do?

For any Christian at any time prayer remains an essential part of our relationship with God. [21] Such is prayer’s importance that Christ Himself taught people how to pray to God [22] Some Christians feel a special conviction to pray at this time of year so what should we be praying about?

Ephesians tells us that our battle is not against people but in resisting the
hard sell of compromising with a fallen world. [23] It is Christ who, by his
sacrifice upon the cross, has the authority to rebuke fallen entities so we
should follow the example of Michael and leave the actual rebuking to Him [24].
However we should pray for those who are spiritually seeking the ultimate
reality especially those who feel that this can only be reached by exploring
evil practises at this time of year. Pray that they be touched in such a way
that they begin to seek God as God is and not as they imagine God. 

  • Pray for those who
    work with and care for young people. For teachers, youth workers, mentors,
    social workers and parents. Pray that the example of their lives provides a
    positive witness for Christ to young people.
  • Pray that God protects,
    blesses and gives Gods peace to all who find this time of year un-nerving or
  • Pray that those who
    celebrate Halloween are not drawn towards practices forbidden by God in God’s
  • Pray that those who
    plan to use this time of year as an excuse to cause fear, malicious mischief
    and criminal damage become convicted that such would be wrong and refrain from
    doing so.
  • Pray that the
    emergency services; the police; the fire service; ambulance crews and hospital
    staff that they have a peaceful night free from the consequences of out of
    control celebrations.
  • Pray for those
    churches that are hosting alternatives to Halloween for their young people that they are honouring to Christ and a
    good witness for Christ to those who are not Christians.

“They (the church) are
afraid because wolves have come to fleece the flock repeatedly with their
fictional stories of sadistic rituals and evil madness. They are afraid because
they ignorant of the truths that come to bear upon this whole matter. Even IF
every urban myth was true, Even IF every witch was out to get you My God is
still on the throne!

If only my brothers and sisters in Christ would study God’s word rather than
Rebecca’s or Bill’s then would I no longer fear this season of the year? Let
every Christian know that these myths
are just not so. Hide away if you feel you must but while you do that pray for
the rest of us who feel this season tug at our souls. God made this day too. He
is the King of Kings.

Let every child of God spend their efforts preparing for this day. How often
does the world beat a path to your door? Now you will have extra people to pray
for. So why not give them some treats and pray for them to come to know Jesus? And
in between the precious little ones dressed in weirdness calling read your
Bible and pray, having thrown the mislabelled fiction away.”

Mark Ex-occultist

Praise Parties.

As Halloween as opposed to Samhain was
originally a time of prayer and celebration within the church consider
reclaiming it with a party that honours God. Many young people have vibrant
ideas on ways of worshipping God. When given the opportunity and encouragement
they can become more involved in their church’s life. Perhaps younger children
would appreciate a party in which they celebrate the awe and wonder of God.
Older teens might prefer a worship celebration they have organised with
opportunity to socialise during and afterwards so they could invite their none-churched

Remember most teens would far rather have somewhere warm and safe to have fun together than be cold and bored on a dark wet street.

Building relations with school

There are many teachers who welcome the
chance to enliven their teaching sessions with seasonal activities. In recent
years, thanks mainly to the commercial hard sell of Halloween goodies, awareness of Halloween
has been raised. There are certainly plenty of books aimed at children with
themes of ghosts, witches, fairies, dragons, monsters and the like.

If Christians choose not to partake of school life for the rest of the year and
only go in to complain and demand that evil Halloween activities should not take place they
will appear as fanatics. It is far better to gradually build up a relationship
with the school over a period of time so that those involved in teaching and
administration at the school appreciate you share their concerns in providing a
safe environment for their children. Even pagan teachers will appreciate that
concern if you are known and your views are considered, reasonable, thought out
and motivated by compassion. This will then allow you to explain with reason
your concerns about Halloween activities and request that it would be sensible to advise
youngsters not to experiment with occult activities.

There will always be some who, despite warnings from Christians and mature
pagans alike, do try and experiment with what they imagine the occult to be, so
consider also suggesting that if any child is or becomes worried or scared by
activities they do over Halloween they can always speak to their parent, teacher or even Childline UK.
Childline UK is there for any child who has worries, difficulties at school and
so on it is not just those who suffer abuse.

Trick or treat

Christian children and the children of Christians should not be involved in this
activity. In the UK more so than on the USA the tricks can be rather malicious
and frightening. It is not honouring to Christ to partake of an activity that
in essence is pure blackmail to prevent vandalism and reprise attacks.

Encourage children to consider how this activity can frighten the very young
and the very old if they were to turn up unexpectedly wearing scary costumes
and latex masks. Enter into debate to consider the impact of being repeatedly
woken up and disturbed on the frail and elderly. Most young people do have a
sense of justice and once they begin to explore an idea they can see injustice
and cruelty. Even pagans urge their children to think and act responsibly and take
care for their elderly neighbours at this time of year.

Encourage your friends and neighbours to talk to their children into declining
to take part in trick or treat and explain your reasons why in a way that
allows for debate. You never know you might begin to build a bridge that will
allow you to share why you have faith in Christ.

If your church fellowship is having an open Praise Party why not extend an
invitation to your friends and neighbours inviting their children to that

Please be aware that how you act and react at this time of year can nurture or
destroy opportunities to share the gospel of Christ with others. Pray that God
guides you to act responsibly compassionately and with care for others as
Christ Himself had.

For our own children?

Most of our young people will have
friends at school who are wiccan; some will be exploring assorted pagan beliefs
and a few will perhaps have blown pocket money on Lavey’s Satanic Bible. Our
children are less likely to have our hang-ups about being friends with those
who have different faiths to their own and be comfortable discussing different beliefs
with such people. It is important that we as Christian parents provide our children with the
most accurate information we can. If we do not, they will know we do not know
what we are talking about in regards to the occult and that could lead them to
wonder if we know what we are talking about when it comes to Christ. 

Many teens do feel the pressure that wanting to identify as part of a group
brings. Pray that your Children know God’s peace and strength about their own
convictions so that they feel able to make a stand when they feel they are
being pressurised into decisions that concern them or they feel are morally

As young people grow they appreciate, even if they do not like, explanations as
to why you view something as wrong or evil and would prefer them to refrain
from doing something. Allowing discussions on ‘sticky’ subjects keeps open the
door for your child to communicate with you. As children become teenagers and
begin to explore their own morality, belief and faith and yes enter rebellion against
their parents this becomes even more important.

If you are banning Halloween parties with none Christian friends outright it can help if you are
able to offer your children an alternative. Check if your church or a
neighbouring church has any youth activities planned they could attend instead.
Perhaps you could allow them to invite friends back to your home with a take
away or other favourite foods on offer. There are a range of secular DVDs they
could share that would allow a wider debate on the nature of God. the only
limit is your imagination and confidence. ‘Raiders of The lost Arc’ could lead
to the question ‘well would you steal and try and open Gods box?’ to ‘Bruce
Almighty’ and the ethical dilemma of ‘what happens when man tries to be God’
and for those parenting stronger minded challenging older teens ‘Dogma’ When angels
go Bad and God makes better than new’.

One final word of caution.

Despite all that has been said there
will remain a small group of people who for whatever reasons will attempt
occult explorations for the first time this Halloween simply because it’s the 31st October.
The majority of such people are going to be disappointed but given the
unpredictable nature of the spiritual domain some may well get a lot more than
they ever anticipated possible. If you have concerns about someone you care
about and need support or if you feel you have got out of your depth or want to
know more about Christ then please make contact with your local Churches.

As a post-occultist who now follows Christ I wish to thank all those pagans and
occultists who have so willingly shared their time, resources and thoughts with
me regarding this article.

My most grateful thanks must go to Mike Stygal and Justin Eiler.

To Mike – thank you for understanding
the need for an article that would provide insight to allow constructive
dialogue to begin. Mike’s comments and suggestions from the point of view as a
pagan, a parent and a teacher were most helpful.

Justin whose willingness to share his
scholarly knowledge and access to early historical resources and social history
allowed this article to be complied quickly. Justin also patiently proofed the
first edition of this article. It would have taken me far longer to source the material
and you would have suffered far more from my dyslexic writing style without his

I also wish to thank those who identify as ex-occultists ex-wiccans and
ex-Satanists and those still practising who have read through commented and
made suggestions.

Thank you to you all.

Caitlin Smith.

— Footnotes —

1: 2 Cor. 6:14. All Bible quotations
taken from the King James Bible.

2: A translated version of the Tain is
available at (Accessed and link checked 23/10/2013)

3: A translated version of The Mabinogion
is available at  (Accessed and link
checked 23/10/2013)

4: A translation of The Annals of
Tacitus is available at (Accessed and link checked 23/10/2013)

5: A translation of Caesar’s The Gallic
War is available at (Accessed and link checked 23/10/2013)

6: British Archaeology No38 October
1998 ‘Human Sacrifice in Iron Age Europe.’
Miranda Aldhouse Green

7: British Archaeology No 13 April 1996
‘Plastic Pete and Lindow Man’

8: Ross, Anne and Don Robins. The Life and Death of a Druid Prince: The
Story of Lindow Man, An Archaeological Sensation. (Touchstone
(July 15, 1991)) For the opposing view, please see
Ellis, Peter Berresford. The Druids.
9 Constable; First edition (4 July 1994))

9: Sharpe, Richard, transl. Adomnan of
Ionia: Life of St. Columba. [Penguin Classics; New Ed
edition (23 Feb 1995))

10: Ellis, op cit.

11: Ibid.

12: [Note: Link correct in 2002 now void]

13: For the definition of vigils within
the Catholic Church, see For feasts, see  [Accessed and both links checked

14: It should be noted that the earlier part of the document engages in
some rather irresponsible speculation concerning the “Celtic connection” to Halloween. [Accessed and link checked

15: Bethancourt, W. J. Halloween: Myths, Monsters, and Devils. [Accessed and link checked 23/10/2013]

16: History Channel, op cit.

17: Examples include Michelle Smith and Lawrence Pazder, authors of ‘Michelle
Remembers’ ; Mike Warnke, author of ‘The Satan Seller’; Lauren Stratford,
author of ‘Satan’s Underground’; and Dr. Rebecca Brown and “Elaine,” authors of
‘He Came To Set the Captives Free’. Please see : for more information. However, it should be noted that the Religious
Tolerance is a “religiously neutral” website but their research is first rate,
many Christians may disagree with some of their conclusions. [Accessed and link
checked 23/10/2013]

18: Please see However, it should be noted that the Religious Tolerance is a “religiously
neutral” website but their research is first rate, many Christians may disagree
with some of their conclusions. [Accessed and link checked 23/10/2013]

19: The Truth about Satanism
by Lance King. One of the best-researched articles on Satanism by Christians available
on the web [ original of writing. ] Sacred Tribes Journal Vol 1:1 Fall 2002 is
now available to view online at [Both Accessed and links checked 23/10/2013]

20: Quoted from [accessed and link checked 23/10/2013]

21: “Praying always with all prayer and
supplication in the Spirit and watching thereunto with all perseverance and
supplication for all saints” Ephesians 6 v18 KJV

22: Matthew 6 5-15

23: “For we wrestle not against flesh
and blood but against principalities against powers, against the rulers of the
darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places” Ephesians
6 v12 KJV

“Yet Michael the archangel when contending with the devil he disputed about the
body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation but said, ‘Th

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